Dosage effects of chromosomes of homoeologous groups 1 and 6 upon bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat

Abstract

The endosperm storage proteins, glutenin and gliadin, are major determinants of bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat. Genes encoding them are located on chromosomes of homoeologous groups 1 and 6. Aneuploid lines of these groups in spring wheat cultivar ‘Chinese Spring’ have been used to investigate the effect of varying the dosage of chromosomes and chromosome arms upon bread-making quality, where quality has been assessed using the SDS-sedimentation test. Differences between the group 1 chromosomes for quality were greater than those between the group 6 chromosomes. The chromosomes were ranked within homoeologous groups for their effect on quality as follows (>=better quality): 1D>1B>1A and 6A>6B=6D. The relationship of chromosome dosage with quality was principally linear for four of the chromosomes, but not for 6B and 6D. Increases in the dosage of 1B, 6A and, especially, 1D, were associated with significant improvements in quality, whereas increases in the dosage of 1A were associated with reductions in quality. The effects of 1A and 1D were such that the best genotype for quality was nullisomic 1A-tetrasomic 1D. For group 1, effects of the long arm appeared in general to be more important than effects of the short arm. For group 6, effects were found associated with the long arms as well as with the short arms, a surprising result in view of the absence of genes encoding storage proteins on the long arms. Significant interactions were found between chromosomes and genetic backgrounds, and between individual chromosomes. Analysis of trials grown over two years demonstrated that, although additive environmental differences over years and genotype x years interaction were present, they were relatively small in magnitude compared with purely genetic differences.

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