Insights into the evolution of proglucagon-derived peptides and receptors in fish and amphibians.


Glucagon and the glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1 and GLP-2) share a common evolutionary origin and are triplication products of an ancestral glucagon exon. In mammals, a standard scenario is found where only a single proglucagon-derived peptide set exists. However, fish and amphibians have either multiple proglucagon genes or exons that are likely resultant of duplication events. Through phylogenetic analysis and examination of their respective functions, the proglucagon ligand-receptor pairs are believed to have evolved independently before acquiring specificity for one another. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of current knowledge of proglucagon-derived peptides and receptors, with particular focus on fish and amphibian species.


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